Introduction, Objectives and Expected Outputs

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 Recent findings of BRP baseline study indicated that the rangelands in the targeted areas are severely damaged, and the livelihoods of rural and pastoral communities are deteriorated.  For the BRP, the focal issue is the improvement of land resources, through the implementation of IWMP, to ensure a sustainable flow of goods and services from these resources to local communities within the context of functional ecosystems. 

 Technologies for improved water use efficiency and management of scarce water resources in the area like Jordan Badia are available.  However, many of these technologies are not widely implemented or are not seen as feasible by farmers. This can be attributed to a number of constraints, including technical, socioeconomic and policy factors, but most important is the lack of community participation in the development and implementation of improved technologies.

 IWMP techniques are effective tools in rangeland restoration and in improving land productivity. Water harvesting is an excellent tool that can stabilize, sustain, and improve crop yield if properly employed in farming-systems together with the concept of "sustainable land use". However, the efficient use of this tool will be guaranteed only if local communities accept to use these tools to help them in improving their livelihoods.

 Fodder shrubs planting under water harvesting techniques seems to be the most suitable solution for rangeland rehabilitation. Water harvesting will maximize the benefit from rainfall run off to increase fodder shrubs production. The most well-known plant species to suite drought and salinity conditions in the eastern Mediterranean arid land are Atriplex. It performs well in rangelands good reservation from plowing, grazing and other man misuse is taking place.  The establishment of fodder shrubs, however, requires specific mechanization and agricultural machines. The experience in Jordan showed that Vallerani plow is the most suitable machine that can achieve this purpose. The machine is capable of constructing contour ridges and allows furrow opening in a good depth while loosening the soil below the base of the furrow which allows good water storage and root penetration and eventually good shrub establishment.

 Check dams, a wadi flow diversion structure and re-distribution of floodwater (water spreading) will be used to conserve the soils and water through minimizing the erosive action of flowing water, reducing water flow velocity and also encouraging soil-moisture storage as well as enhancement of biomass production.

 Rainwater harvesting and its storage will be through the construction of water ponds. The stored water will be used for the purposes of livestock watering and irrigation of planted shrubs. Soil loss from the watersheds will be continuously depositing in the constructed water ponds. This will result in reducing the water storage capacity of these ponds. To reduce this phenomenon and to minimize the deteriorating conditions, a series of stone check dams will be constructed along the main wadies located in the upstream of the water ponds.

 To this end, this work plan of IWMP was designed to achieve the following objectives and outputs.

 Objectives of IWMP

 The general objective of the IWMP is to restore the degraded rangeland and improve the production in Badia rangeland by more efficient utilization of rainfall through the proper and effective implementation of water harvesting plan and grazing management plan. The water harvesting technique will control the surface runoff, increase the soil moisture content, conserve the soil, improve the natural plant cover, and improve the vegetation production.

 Specific objectives include:

  •  Restoring and rehabilitating the degraded rangelands of the targeted ecosystems through the effective use of soil and water resources and improve livestock production.
  • Improving the capacity of communities’ to manage common natural resources.
  •  Enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of rainwater and runoff use, improve vegetative cover and reduce soil erosion through better rainwater management.
  • Spreading the use of water harvesting structures as a sustainable and renewable water resource to help in ecosystem restoration and maintain the land and livestock productivity. 
  • Increasing the productivity of natural vegetation and shrubs in order to decrease feed demand for livestock animal in Badia rangeland area and increase the income of the participating livestock owners.
  • Disseminating appropriate water harvesting techniques for rangeland restoration, risk management and drought mitigation.
  • Improving on-site infiltration/soil-moisture.
  • Reducing on-site soil erosion/soil loss.
  • Reducing off-site destructive impacts of runoff (reduced flood peak).
  • Reducing sediment delivery at downstream areas.
  • Improving the grazing management and the structure and function of vegetation in the Badia rangeland through implementing rest rotation and late grazing schemes.

 Expected Outputs

  •  Secured water for livestock of the targeted communities.
  • Developed and managed watersheds of the degraded ecosystems.
  • Sustainable water harvesting systems and grazing management for sustainable rangeland/ecosystem restoration implemented by communities
  • Valued positive changes in soil quality, vegetation cover, biomass production, and rain-water use efficiency.
  • Improved rain water conservation and utilization for different purposes (shrubs plantation, livestock watering, and rangeland rehabilitation).
  • Provisional recommendations/ training materials for extension of specific recommendations for water harvesting systems, and rangeland management for water-use efficiency.
  • Improved information base and improved experience/expertise on water harvesting techniques and vegetation/shrub suitability.
  • Promotion of effective WH techniques.


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